Self Defense & Armed Resistance in the Black Freedom Struggle



Charles E. Cobb Jr.: This Nonviolent Stuff’ll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible.

Scott Crow (editor): Setting Sights: Histories and Reflections on Community Armed Self-Defense.

Lance Hill: The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement.

Nicholas Johnson: Negroes and the Gun: The Black Tradition of Arms.

David F. Krugler: 1919, The Year of Racial Violence: How African Americans Fought Back.

Christopher B. Strain: Pure Fire: Self-Defense as Activism in the Civil Rights Era.

Timothy B. Tyson: Blood Done Sign My Name: A True Story.

Timothy B. Tyson: Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power.

Akinyele Omowale Umoja: We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement.

Simon Wendt: The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights.

Robert F. Williams. Prologue by Martin Luther King. Negroes with Guns.


Black Liberation Army: Resources.

Charles E. Cobb Jr.:

Emilye Crosby: ‘This nonviolent stuff ain’t no good. It’ll get ya killed.’: Teaching about Self-Defense in the African-American Freedom Struggle,” in Teaching the American Civil Rights Movement.

Scott Crow: Liberatory Community Armed Self-Defense: Approaches Toward a Theory.

Angela Davis: video interview from prison on the role of self-defense in the Black Freedom Struggle.

Deacons of Defense:

Annelieke Dirks: Between Threat and Reality: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Emergence of Armed Self-Defense in Clarksdale and Natchez, Mississippi, 1960-1965.

Houston Mutiny of 1917:

Nicholas Johnson:

David F. Krugler: see his large collection of articles and interviews about Black self-defense during the Red Summer.

Left of Black: Black Armed Resistance(Contains timeline.)

Thad Morgan: The NRA Supported Gun Control When the Black Panthers Had the Weapons.

Rebecca Onion: Red Summer: In 1919, white Americans visited awful violence on black Americans. So black Americans decided to fight back.

Akinyele Omowale Umoja:

Simon Wendt:

Robert F. Williams:

Malcolm X: Video interview, clarifying his call for self-defense and rifle clubs.