Struggle and Popular Resistance: How Angola’s Independence Was Consolidated

Augusto Juncal Internationalist 360° The physical and psychological scars, in people like Angolans and Mozambicans, are still evident. 43 years ago, on 11 November 1975, the Angolan people, after years of brutal war, declared their independence Fifty-seven years ago, in 1961, a rebellion broke out in what was then one of Portugal’s African colonies, its…

Cuba, Cuito Cuanavale and the Revolutionary Struggle in Africa

Cuito Cuanavale: How Cuba fought for Africa’s freedom Barry Healy This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale, a heroic struggle in which, between October 1987 and June 1988, in some of the fiercest fighting in Africa since the Second World War, the South African Defence Force (SADF) were humiliatingly defeated…